Wednesday, February 29, 2012

ORGANS AGEING AT DIFFERENT TIMES.



Time: When your body really starts going downhill.



There's no denying the ticking of a woman's biological clock  -  but men are not immune, either. French doctors have found that the quality of sperm starts to deteriorate by 35, so that by the time a man is 45 a third of pregnancies end in miscarriage.Here, with the help of leading clinicians, Angela Epstein identifies the ages when different parts of the body start to lose their battle with time.

BRAIN Starts ageing at 20.
As we get older, the number of nerve cells  -  or neurons  -  in the brain decrease. We start with around 100 billion, but in our 20s this number starts to decline.

By 40, we could be losing up to 10,000 per day, affecting memory, co-ordination and brain function.

In fact, while the neurons are important, it's actually the deterioration of the gaps between the brain cells that has the biggest impact, says Dr Wojtek Rakowicz, a consultant neurologist at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust in London .

We all assume grey hair and wrinkles are the first signs of ageing, but some parts of your body are worn out long before you look old.

These tiny gaps between the end of one brain nerve cell and another are called synapses. Their job is to ensure the flow of information from one cell to another, and as we age we make fewer.

GUT Starts ageing at 55. 
A healthy gut has a good balance between harmful and 'friendly' bacteria. But levels of friendly bacteria in the gut drop significantly after 55, particularly in the large intestine, says Tom MacDonald, professor of immunology at Barts And The London medical school. As a result, we suffer from poor digestion and an increased risk of gut disease. Constipation is more likely as we age, as the flow of digestive juices from the stomach, liver, pancreas and small intestine slows down.

BREASTS start ageing at 35.
BY their mid-30s, women's breasts start losing tissue and fat, reducing size and fullness.Sagging starts properly at 40 and the areola (the area surrounding the nipple) can shrink considerably.Although breast cancer risk increases with age, it's not related to physical changes in the breast. More likely, says Gareth Evans, breast cancer specialist at St Mary's Hospital, Manchester , our cells become damaged with age  -  as a result, the genes which control cell growth can mutate, causing cancer. 

BLADDER Starts ageing at 65.
Loss of bladder control is more likely when you hit 65. The bladder starts to contract suddenly, even when it's not full. Women are more vulnerable to bladder problems as, after the menopause, declining oestrogen levels make tissues in the urethra  -  the tube through which urine passes  -  thinner and weaker, reducing bladder support. Bladder capacity in an older adult generally is about half that of a younger person  - about two cups in a 30-year-old and one cup in a 70-year-old. This causes more frequent trips to the loo, particularly as poor muscle tone means the bladder may not fully empty. This in turn can lead to urinary tract infections. 

LUNGS Start ageing at 20.
Lung capacity slowly starts to decrease from the age of 20.By the age of 40, some people are already experiencing breathlessness. This is partly because the muscles and the rib cage which control breathing stiffen up. It's then harder to work the lungs and also means some air remains in the lungs after breathing out  -  causing breathlessness. Aged 30, the average man can inhale two pints of air in one breath. By 70, it's down to one.   

VOICE Starts ageing at 65.
Our voices become quieter and hoarser with age. The soft tissues in the voice box (larynx) weaken, affecting the pitch, loudness and quality of the voice. A woman's voice may become huskier and lower in pitch, whereas a man's might become thinner and higher.   

EYES start ageing at 40
Glasses are the norm for many over - 40s as failing eyesight kicks in  -  usually long-sightedness, affecting our ability to see objects up close. As we age, the eye's ability to focus deteriorates because the eyes' muscles become weaker, says Andrew Lotery, professor of ophthalmology at the University of Southampton .   

HEART Starts ageing at 40.
The heart pumps blood less effectively around the body as we get older. This is because blood vessels become less elastic, while arteries can harden or become blocked because of fatty deposits forming on the coronary arteries  -  caused by eating too much saturated fat. The blood supply to the heart is then reduced, resulting in painful angina. Men over 45 and women over 55 are at greater risk of a heart attack. A recent study by Lloyds Pharmacy found the average person in the UK has a 'heart age' five years older than their chronological age, probably due to obesity and lack of exercise.   

LIVER Starts ageing at 70.
This is the only organ in the body which seems to defy the aging process. 'Its cells have an extraordinary capacity to regenerate,' explain David Lloyd, a consultant liver surgeon at Leicester Royal Infirmary.He says he can remove half a liver during surgery and it will grow to the size of a complete liver within three months. If a donor doesn't drink, use drug or suffer from infection, then it is possible to transplant a 70-year-old liver into a 20-year-old.  

KIDNEY SStarts ageing at 50
With kidneys, the number of filtering units (nephrons) that remove waste from the bloodstream starts to reduce in middle age. One effect of this is their inability to turn off urine production at night, causing frequent trips to the bathroom. The kidneys of a 75-year-old person will filter only half the amount of blood that a 30-year-old's will.   

PROSTATEStarts ageing at 50. 
The prostate often becomes enlarged with age, leading to problems such as increased need to urinate, says Professor Roger Kirby, director of the Prostate Centre in London . This is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia and affects half of men over 50, but rarely those under 40. It occurs when the prostate absorbs large amounts of the male sex hormone testosterone, which increases the growth of cells in the prostate. A normal prostate is the size of a walnut, but the condition can increase this to the size of a tangerine.  

BONES Start ageing at 35
'Throughout our life, old bone is broken down by cells called osteoclasts and replaced by bone-building cells called osteoblasts  -  a process called bone turnover,' explains Robert Moots, professor of rheumatology at Aintree University Hospital in Liverpool . Children's bone growth is rapid  -  the skeleton takes just two years to renew itself completely. In adults, this can take ten years. Until our mid-20s, bone density is still increasing. But at 35 bone loss begins as part of the natural ageing process. This becomes more rapid in post-menopausal women and can cause the bone-thinning condition osteoporosis. The shrinking in size and density of bones can lead to loss of height. Bones in the back shrivel up or crumble between the vertebrae. We lose two inches in height by the time we're 80.   

TEETH Start ageing at 40. 
As we age, we produce less saliva, which washes away bacteria, so teeth and gums are more vulnerable to decay. Receding gums  -  when tissue is lost from gums around the teeth  -  is common in adults over 40.        

MUSCLES Start ageing at 30.   
Muscle is constantly being built up and broken down, a process which is well balanced in young adults. However, by the time we're 30, breakdown is greater than buildup, explains Professor Robert Moots. Once adults reach 40, they start to lose between 0.5 and 2 per cent of their muscle each year. Regular exercise can help prevent this..    

• HEARING Starts ageing mid-50s 
More than half of people over 60 lose hearing because of their age, according to the Royal National Institute for the Deaf. The condition, known as presbycusis, happens due to a loss of 'hair cells'  -  tiny sensory cells in the inner ear which pick up sound vibrations and send them to the brain.   

• SKIN Starts ageing mid-20s 
The skin starts to age naturally in your mid-20s. According to Dr Andrew Wright, a consultant dermatologist with Bradford NHS Trust, as we get older production of collagen  -  the protein which acts as scaffolding to the skin  -  slows, and elastin, the substance that enables skin to snap back into place, has less spring and can even break. Dead skin cells don't shed as quickly and turnover of new skin cells may decrease slightly. This causes fine wrinkles and thin, transparent skin  -  even if the first signs may not appear until our mid-30s (unless accelerated by smoking or sun damage).   

TASTE AND SMELL Start ageing at 60. 
We start out in life with about 10,000 taste buds scattered on the tongue. This number can halve later in life.After we turn 60, taste and smell gradually decline, partly as a result of the normal ageing process. This can be accelerated by problems such as polyps in the nasal or sinus cavities. It can also be the cumulative effect of years of smoking.   

FERTILITY starts ageing at 35 
Female fertility begins to decline after 35, as the number and quality of eggs in the ovaries start to fall. The lining of the womb may become thinner, making it less likely for a fertilised egg to take, and also creating an environment hostile to sperm. Male fertility also starts to drop around this age. Men who wait until their 40s before starting a family have a greater chance of their partner having a miscarriage, because of the poorer quality of their sperm. 

• HAIR Starts ageing at 30 
Male hair loss usually begins in the 30s. Hair is made in tiny pouches just under the skin's surface, known as follices. A hair normally grows from each follicle for about three years, is then shed, and a new hair grows. However, with male-pattern baldness, changes in levels of testosterone from their early-30s affect this cycle, causing the hair follicles to shrink. Each new hair is thinner than the previous one.. Eventually, all that remains is a much smaller hair follicle and a thin stump of hair that does not grow out to the skin surface.   Most people will have some grey hair by the age of 35. When we are young, our hair is coloured by the pigments produced by cells in the hair follicle known as melanocytes. As we grow older, melanocytes become less active, so less pigment is produced, the colour fades, and grey hairs grow instead.

Friday, February 24, 2012

DRINK ENOUGH WATER?


One glass of water shuts down midnight hunger pangs for almost 100% of the dieters studied in a University study: 

Lack of  water 
is the #1 trigger of daytime fatigue.

Preliminary research indicates that  8-10 glasses of water a day could significantly ease back and joint pain for up to 80% of sufferers. 

A mere 2% drop in body water
 can trigger fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on the computer screen.

Drinking 5 glasses of water daily 
decreases the risk of colon cancer by 45%, plus it can slash the risk of breast cancer by 79%, and one is 50% less likely to develop bladder cancer. 

Are you drinking the amount of water you should every day?
 

(No kidding, all of the above
 are true....)

Of course, too much water may have strange side effects..... 



Now that I have your attention, go get another glass of  water!   BUT BE VERY, VERY  CAREFUL!!! 

Laugh often, long and loud... Laugh until you gasp for breath.
  And if you have friends who make you laugh, spend lots of time with them.

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Lower Limb Amputation Rates Associated With Diabetes Drop, US.


An investigation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, found that between 1996 and 2008, the number of leg and foot amputations among U.S. individuals, aged 40+ with diagnosed diabetes, decreased by 65%. 

The study, entitled "Declining Rates of Hospitalization for Non-traumatic Lower-Extremity Amputation in the Diabetic Population Aged 40 years or Older: U.S., 1988-2008," is published online in the current issue of Diabetes Care.

In 1996, the age-adjusted rate of leg and foot amputations was 11.2 per 1,000 individuals with diabetes. However, in 2008 this rate fell to 3.9 per 1,000. 

Non-traumatic, lower-limb amputations, refers to amputations caused by circulatory problems, rather than those caused by injuries. Circulatory problems are a prevalent adverse effect in individuals suffering with diabetes. 

Furthermore, results from the study revealed that in 2008:
Women had lower age-adjusted rates of lower-limb amputations (1.9 per 1,000) than men (6 per 1,000)

Individuals aged 75+ had the highest rate (6.2 per 1,000) than people in other age groups

Rates were higher among blacks (4.9 per 1,000) than whites (2.9 per 1,000)According to the researchers, the decrease in lower-limb amputations among individuals with diabetes may partially be due to factors such as: declines in heart disease, improvements in blood sugar control, as well as foot care and diabetes management. 

Nilka RĂ­os Burrows, M.P.H., an epidemiologist with CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation, explained: 

"The significant drop in rates of non-traumatic lower-limb amputations among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes is certainly encouraging, but more work is needed to reduce the disparities among certain populations. 

We must continue to increase awareness of the devastating health complications of diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of lower-limb amputations in the United States."

After examining data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey on non-traumatic lower-limb amputations from the National Health Interview Survey on the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes from 1988-2008, the researchers discovered that the decrease in rates was higher among individuals with diagnosed diabetes than people without the disease. Although, in 2008, the rate was still approximately 8 times higher among those with the disease than those without diabetes. 

Diabetes is the leading cause of non-traumatic, lower-limb amputations, kidney failure, and blindness among adults. In addition, the disease is the 7th leading cause of mortality in the U.S.. Diabetes also increases the risk of strokes, hypertension, and heart attacks

CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation supports prevention and control programs in all 50 states, seven U.S. territories and island jurisdictions, and the District of Columbia. 

The National Diabetes Education Program provides education to enhance treatment for individuals with the disease, promote early diagnosis and prevent or delay type 2 diabetes from developing. The program is co-sponsored by CDC and the National Institutes of Health. 

Monday, February 13, 2012

ROTAVIRUS OUTBREAK: ANOTHER 298 CASES REPORTED IN PERAK, MALAYSIA



More cases of people suffering from acute gastroenteritis were reported in Perak today due to the Rotavirus outbreak.

The number of victims rose from 2,246 to 2,544 victims as of 6pm.

111 victims in Hilir Perak were detected being infected with rotavirus today, and 40 new cases were also reported in Batang Padang in Tapah.

Among them, an 11 month old baby who was rushed to the Tapah Hospital around 5 pm.

Perak Exco member, Datuk Dr Mah Hang Soon however said, the rotavirus outbreak is under control.

"We should be concerned with prevention and treatment of the disease. Once again, I would like to stress to the public to ensure that the water they drink is boiled," said Datuk Dr. Mah.

To a question, he said the virus and its source would be indentified in the next 48 hours.

Rotavirus, a water-borne virus, is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. 

The outbreak since late last month has caused two deaths and over 2,200 children to fall sick.
Source: NTV7

Friday, February 10, 2012

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

What is Skin Cancer and how Skin cancer develope?


Watch This video, How Skin Cancer Develope?

Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. The most common skin cancers are basal cell cancer, squamous cell cancer, and melanoma. Skin cancer generally develops in the epidermis (the outermost layer of skin), so a tumor is usually clearly visible. This makes most skin cancers detectable in the early stages. 


There are three common and likely types of skin cancer, each of which is named after the type of skin cell from which it arises. Unlike many other cancers, including those originating in the lung, pancreas, and stomach, only a small minority of those afflicted will actually die of the disease.

Skin cancer represents the most commonly diagnosed cancer, surpassing lung, breasts, colorectal andprostate cancer. It is the most common cancer in the young population (20 – 39 age group).

It is estimated that approximately 85% of cases are caused by too much sun. Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common skin cancers. The majority of these are called basal cell carcinomas. These are usually localized growths caused by excessive cumulative exposure to the sun and do not tend to spread.


Sunday, February 5, 2012

Dessert and Diabetes: The Best Diabetes-Friendly Sweets


Historically, people with diabetes were told to avoid sugary foods because eating sugar caused spikes in blood glucose. Now we know that it’s carbohydrates (and sugar is just one type of carbohydrate) that causes blood glucose levels to rise. Despite what you may have heard, eating sugary foods doesn’tcause diabetes—but health experts still recommend limiting sugary foods and carbohydrates because of their effects on blood glucose, and because they generally are not as nutritious as many other foods. Desserts certainly fall into this category. Plus, most desserts contain lots of carbohydrates in a very small serving. The bottom line: you can still have a small portion of your favorite dessert on occasion but there are other ways you can satisfy that sweet tooth.

Learn to Improvise
There are lots of ways you can tweak favorite recipes to lower the amount of sugar in them. For instance, using an artificial sweetener allows you to use half the amount of sugar a recipe calls for. You can also try increasing spices such as vanilla, nutmeg, and cinnamon, and substituting sugary ingredients with applesauce or pureed prunes (just remember that if you use fruit to sweeten, there are still carbohydrates that must be counted).

Alternative Names for Sugar on Food Labels
If only avoiding sugar was as easy as looking for the word on a food label. But sugar comes in countless forms and is known by many names. In fact, there are more than 20 different types of sugar. Besides the obvious “granulated sugar” you might see any of these types of sugar on a list of ingredients:

sorbitol
maltitol
high fructose corn syrup
dextrose
lactose
turbinado
levulose
maltose
xylitol

Serving Sizes
Your healthcare provider has probably given you a range of carbohydrates that you can have at each meal, or every day. For many people with diabetes, this range is between 45 and 60 grams per meal. This means that you must read food labels carefully, and pay attention to portion sizes. Let’s use an Original Nestle Toll House Chocolate Chip Cookie as an example. One cookie has 12.6 grams of carbohydrates. For comparison’s sake, there are 57.5 grams of carbohydrates in a slice of homemade apple pie and 12 grams of carbohydrates in a piece of homemade cheesecake.

Satisfy to Sweet Tooth
In general, it’s best to avoid packaged desserts—e.g. cookies and doughnuts—because they tend to be high in carbohydrates and also contain hydrogenated fats and high-fructose corn syrup. Also on the list of no-no’s if you have diabetes: pound cake, fruit pies and cake, and ice cream, because they are also sugar-rich. In general, desserts that you can make with sugar substitutes—think mousse or parfait made with sugar-free pudding or a fruit tart—are healthier choices.

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